Basic knowledge - Public costs

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The external costs of automobiles, as similarly other economic externalities, are the measurable costs for other parties except the car proprietor, such costs not being taken into account when the proprietor opts to drive their car.
According to the Harvard University,11 the main externalities of driving are local and global pollution, oil dependence, traffic congestion and traffic accidents; while according to a meta-study conducted by the Delft University12 these externalities are congestion and scarcity costs, accident costs, air pollution costs, noise costs, climate change costs, costs for nature and landscape, costs for water pollution, costs for soil pollution and costs of energy dependency.
The existence of the car allows on-demand travel, given, that the necessary infrastructure is in place.
This infrastructure represents a monetary cost, but also cost in terms of common assets that are difficult to represent monetarily, such as land use and air pollution. Źródło:

About Occupational driving - Wikipedia:

Work-related roadway crashes are the leading cause of death from traumatic injuries in the U.S.

They accounted for nearly 12,000 deaths between 1992 and 2000.

Deaths and injuries from these roadway crashes result in increased costs to employers and lost productivity in addition to their toll in human suffering.5 Truck drivers tend to endure higher fatality rates than workers in other occupations, but concerns about motor vehicle safety in the workplace are not limited to those surrounding the operation of large trucks.

Workers outside the motor carrier industry routinely operate company-owned vehicles for deliveries, sales and repair calls, client visits etc.

In these instances, the employer providing the vehicle generally plays a major role in setting safety, maintenance, and training policy.5 As in non-occupational driving, young drivers are especially at risk.
In the workplace, 45% of all fatal injuries to workers under age 18 between 1992 and 2000 in the United States resulted from transportation incidentsŹródło:

Brayton cycle

Brayton cycle Main article: Brayton cycle Brayton cycle A gas turbine is a rotary machine somewhat similar in principle to a steam turbine.
It consists of three main components: compressor, combustion chamber, and turbine.
The air is compressed by the compressor where a temperature rise occurs.
The compressed air is further heated by combustion of injected fuel in the combustion chamber which expands the air.

This energy rotates the turbine which powers the compressor via a mechanical coupling.

The hot gases are then exhausted to provide thrust. Gas turbine cycle engines employ a continuous combustion system where compression, combustion, and expansion occur simultaneously at different places in the engine?giving continuous power.

Notably, the combustion takes place at constant pressure, rather than with the Otto cycle, constant volume.Źródło:

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